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molecular biology is the last spearhead of the biology sciences, and it is enclosed in the biotechnology studies. Molecular biology's research target is focused about all the biochemical relations which occur from a gene in a nucleic acid to its traslation in protein. In clinic world, to make a deep classification of diagnostics laboratories, you speak about "molecular biology" if the protein is human or animal, "molecular bacteriology" wheter the protein is bacterial, and "molecular virology" wheter the protein is viral.

Since Earth life is based on protein, molecular biology describes life in a molecular level, that is in the infinitly small. At the centre of everything, there are nucleic acids. DNA and RNA are the start points of all molecular sciences, represented in base on their structure and jobs ( genetic code, protein synthesis, genic expression regulation or intracellular message sending), and in the several methods about the manipulation of nucleic acids in order to create new living organisms ( OGM), or in the methods of interference on that chemical steps which govern cell replication and differentation: with the integration of certain genes, is possibile convert a determined cell into stem cell, and convert this stem cell in another cell of the organism.

Thanks to these knowledge, the genes which codify for any protein ( enzymes, structural proteins, control proteins) can be isolated, sequenced, compared in this way with other one, and introduced into a cell which will produce the wanted protein. 

With the clonation and stem cells research, molecular biology has done many steps forwards. Nowadays we know very well the structure of prokariotic genes and, in the eukariotic one, the biochemical diferences which control the organizzation and the expression of all genes in the organisms, including human. At this knowledge, genetic therapies are being developed by molecular genetic for curing people who suffer of congenital deseases. For istance, the lacking of a critic gene, as a result of a mutation in DNA ( deletion) could be "repaired" by using a modified viral vector which infect the cell. Virus will insert its genome in the cell nucleus. This virus is genetically modified ( with the methods written above), made harmless and "powered" with the lacking gene. One time the virus takes part of host cell genome, the host cell will own the lacking gene, and it will be expressed].

The born of molecular biology is recent. Everything begins in 1953, when Watson and Crick published on Nature the description of DNA structure. The atoms disposition, the sharp pairing of nucleotide bases in the DNA sequence supplied an extraordinary start for reaching the understanding of many biological processes. Following, the discover of genetic code and the improvements given by genetic engineering, scientists succeded to describe genes structure and their job in trasmission of genetic features. 

Many other studies of molecular biology are shared with biochemistry, such as 3D protein structure discover and their thin mechanism of working.

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